Impact of the global warming on ship navigation in polar area
Stipe Galić; Zvonimir Lušić; Danijel Pušić (HHI);
5th International Maritime Science Conference-Book of Proceedings / Vidan, Pero ; Gržetić, Zvonko ; Skočibušić Bukljašić, Mihaela (ur.). Split : Faculty of maritime Studies Split, 2013. 140-154 (predavanje,međunarodna recenzija,objavljeni rad,znanstveni).
Generally, navigating in polar areas has always been one of the most dangerous voyages. The main reason for the increased risk derives from ice, but also from the other unfavorable navigation conditions that occurs in the high northern and southern latitudes, for example: very low temperatures, ice-covered coastlines, sparse population, inability to escape from danger, difficult communication and positioning etc. So far, maritime traffic in area of high latitudes has been relatively small, and the main reason for this can be found in the absence of major ports in this region, and in the inability to use certain routes because of ice. However, significant changes are happening in the last few years, and those changes have announced a brand new role of polar areas in terms of new main routes for merchant ships, especially in Arctic area. These changes have occurred as a result of the increasing exploitation of mineral resources in the polar areas, the exploiting of fish stocks, development of tourism, military and political objectives, etc., including the development of modern technologies that enables us to use, and the people that are living and working in extreme polar conditions. All this is further encouraged by global warming and consequent melting of ice. Precisely, the melting of ice has opened the possibility of using new routes for ships, which today represents completely new challenges for the global shipping industry. This article handles the basic geographical and climatological characteristics of polar areas, maritime transport, and the impact of global warming on the possibility of opening new routes, including existing and upcoming changes in legal regulations for maritime navigation in this area. Special emphasis will be given to the new demands which are being placed in front of crew that are sailing in area of high latitudes.